BALTIMORE '68 EVENTS TIMELINE
This is by no means a comprehensive document. It is based on what little historical information about the unrest is available from common sources. The supporting data were compiled mostly from local newspaper accounts of the events. This timeline does, however, provide a fairly conclusive picture of what occurred during the riots.
Some local events as context:
November 15, 1953
• Martin Luther King, Jr. deliveres a guest sermon at the New Shiloh Baptist Church in Baltimore. Rev. J. Timothy Bodie, an old friend of King's father, invited him to make the guest presentation.
December 29, 1956
• Martin Luther King, Jr. gives a speech at he Omega Psi Phi fraternity annual convention at Morgan State College in Baltimore, MD. He is also awarded the Citizen of the Year Award by the fraternity.
Monday, June 2, 1958
• Martin Luther King Jr. is awarded an honorary degree – doctor of law -- at Morgan State College along with three others including two Baltimoreans, Jacob Blaustein and Walter Sondheim Jr. King was the principal speaker before 3,000 gathered at Hughes Memorial Stadium on the Morgan campus.
December 20, 1963
• King speaks during the Baltimore Freedom Rally before a crowd of more than 8,000 at the Baltimore Civic Center. During the rally an anonymous bomb threat was called in. A search by police and fire crews found nothing. The crowd was not
October 30, 1964
• King comes to Baltimore as part of a multi-city campaign to encourage Negroes to vote in upcoming elections.
April 1, 1965
• King, following a meeting in Baltimore of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, announces plans to launch a new drive to register Negroes in the South.
April 22, 1966
• King gives a speech, "Race and the Church," before a gathering of Methodist clergy at the Baltimore Civic Center.
July 1, 1966
• King cancels a visit to Baltimore where he was to speak at the convention of the Congress for Racial Equality (CORE).
November 12, 1966
• King visits Baltimore. During a news conference he presses the federal government to pass a fair housing law and calls for Americans to begin electing persons to office based on their ability and not their skin color.
• King is scheduled to visit Baltimore but changes his plans and goes to Memphis, Tenn. to march with striking sanitation workers.
Thursday, April 4, 1968
• 6:01 p.m. —Martin Luther King is assassinated in Memphis
• Night: Northwest Baltimore Tavern hit by Molotov cocktails; fire at three stores at Cherry Hill Shopping Center; vacant downtown building set afire; Park Heights—fire bombs at tavern; vandals at tax accounting office; debris fire at Fayette and Paca; attempted fire in the 500 block of W. Coldspring Lane.
Friday, April 5, 1968
•National Guard on standby
•No significant occurrences
•Heavy violence in other cities including Detroit and Washington, D.C.
The unrest begins in Baltimore:
Saturday, April 6, 1968
• National Guard on standby during day
• Riots begin in earnest in Baltimore.
• Noon—Peaceful gathering of 300 at memorial service for King
• 2 p.m.—Service ends, city is peaceful
• 4 p.m.—Commemorative interdenominational service
• 5 p.m.—First reports of store windows being smashed and disturbances in the 400 block of N. Gay St. on the east side
• 5:30 p.m.—Violence breaks out in Gay Street "ghetto" area
• 5:40 p.m.—All policemen in Central district ordered to posts
• 6 p.m.—First reports of looting at drycleaners, Gay and Monument streets. Police move in to seal Gay St. from the 400 to 700 block (side streets as well).
• 6 p.m.—Looting at Gay and Monument streets
• 6:15 p.m.— First report of fire at Ideal Furniture Company, 700 block of N. Gay. Police pelted with stones and bottles as they seal off Gay from the 400 block North to the 700 block.
• 6:30 p.m.— Two alarm fire in Lewis Furniture Co., another furniture store in the 700 block of Gay. Fire goes to two alarms by 6:40 p.m.
• 6:50 p.m.—All off-duty policemen ordered to report; headquarters set up at Bel Air Market.
• Evening—Complete curfew declared in city between 11 p.m. Saturday and 6 a.m. Sunday. Approximately 6,000 National Guard troops enter the city, under the command of Maj. Gen. George Gelston. Two people (one black, one white) burn to death in a blaze at Federal and Chester streets. A three-building fire at the corner of Harford Avenue is the most serious of the night. A black man is shot and killed at Harford Road and Lafayette Ave. Sales of alcohol, flammables in containers, and firearms are banned in city. Alarms go off all night on Gay St. from 400 to the 1100 block. Johns Hopkins Hospital staff are asked to stay on duty all night.
• 7:15 p.m.—Economy/furniture/appliance store broken into by 50 youths in the 900 block of N. Gay. They tear away protective iron gratings and loot the store. A crowd of boys is dispersed from Mondawmin, and at Harford Road and North Ave.
• 7:20 p.m.—Police arrive at a scene of looting and call the atmosphere a "carnival."
• 8 p.m./8:10 p.m.—Maryland Gov. Spiro Agnew declares a state of emergency in Baltimore. Officers from the Maryland State Police move into the city and are placed under the command of Baltimore City Police Commissioner Donald Pomerlau. A fire is reported in a tailor's shop in the 2300 block of Greenmount. Mayor Tommy D'Alessandro reports to a communication center at police headquarters at Fallsway and Fayette.
• 8:05 p.m.—Looting and burning of a tailor shop in the 900 block N. Gay St.
• 8:45 p.m.—The worst fire yet is reported, at an A&P in the 1400 block of N. Milton in East Baltimore. The store is looted and then burned along with and three other stores. By 9:30 p.m. it is a four-alarm fire, with onlookers throwing stones and bottles. The Levinson and Klein store at Monument and Chester streets is looted.
• 9 p.m.—By this point, 1,200 to 1,500 officers are in East Baltimore
• 9.15 p.m.—Gov. Agnew says the situation is in control. Rioting threatens to move northward, but police assure the governor that nothing will get out of hand. Agnew reportedly doesn't believe them. City leaders stress that the declaration of emergency is only a "precautionary measure."
• 9:20 p.m.—Police arrest seven people riding in truck loaded with bricks and rocks on Madison St. near Greenmount Ave. There is a fire in the 4700 block of Park Heights.
• 9:30 p.m.—Police set up a command post at Park Circle on the west side as a precautionary measure. During the day there were only a few scattered incidents there. In the Ashland Ave. and Aisquith St. area, there are disturbances which generate a police response. The crowd flees, chanting "We shall overcome." A murder is reported at Lucas Tavern in the 400 block of N. Carey St. (The incident is questionably related to the riot).
• 9:30 p.m.— Baltimore police set up a command post at Park Circle.
• 9.35 p.m.—At North Ave. and possibly Greenmount Ave., rocks are thrown. The same thing happens at Gay from Chase to Orleans. Three stores on Greenmount from the 1900 to the 2300 block are burned by firebombs. Two stores on Greenmount in the 1200 block are burned.
• 10 p.m.—By this point, a dozen stores on Greenmount Ave. are on fire and looters have crossed North Ave. Sporadic fires and pillaging are reported on the west side. Looting and burning sweeps up Greenmount Ave. and crosses North Ave.
• 10:10 p.m.—Gov. Agnew commits the National Guard. He bans the sale of liquor, firearms, and gasoline in surrounding counties. He puts in place a curfew from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m.
• 10:30 p.m.—Violence on Gay Street is declared "out of control." Gay St. area merchants, armed with rifles, board up their stores.
• 10:45 p.m.—In the 900 block of N. Gay a jewelry store is firebombed.
• 11 p.m.—By this time, police have arrested 100. Looting begins on Pennsylvania Ave. in the 1200-2000 blocks
• 11:15 p.m.—National Guard troops move from the 5th Regiment Armory on trucks. Things quiet down. They take over the area from 25th St. to North Ave. Baltimore officers and Maryland State Police patrol the area south of North Ave.
• 11:30 p.m.—Baltimore Mayor D'Alessandro appears on television. He appeals to citizens to obey curfew and pleads for peace. Fire captain is injured by a thrown glass bottle in the 1000 block of N. Gay.
• Summary for the day: Three killed, 70 hurt, 100 arrested, high levels of violence, looting downtown, 250 fire alarms. Boundaries of violence extend from Greenmount, North Ave., Chester and Baltimore. Most serious areas are in the 1900 and 2300 blocks of E. Monument, the 700 and 900 blocks of N. Gay, and at the intersection of North and Greenmount Ave.
Sunday April 7, 1968
• Midnight—Despite the curfew, looting and burning start up again. East Baltimore police send 400-500 Guardsmen armed with bayonets onto Aisquith to 25th St. to stop curfew violators. A dozen troop carriers are dispatched from the Armory. At Milton Ave. and Preston St., a food market/five and dime is looted and set ablaze.
• 1:45 a.m.—City reported to be "relatively quiet." Sniper fire at police cruisers is reported at N. Fulton and Lafayette Ave. The mood of the crowds is "uglier" than on Saturday.
• 7:30 a.m.—After a lull, looting picks up again
• Morning—Gen. York comes to Baltimore. An early tour is made by D'Alessandro on Palm Sunday. Things are relatively calm. On Pennsylvania Ave., in the 900 block of North Ave., and the 600 block of Gay St., lootings are reported. Thirty-two are treated for injuries, and 47 fires are set in the area overnight. There are further reports of problems at 42nd St. at York Road and at Walbrook Junction. A two-alarm fire is reported at Federal St. and Milton Ave. Two fires break out two blocks apart—at Federal and Holbrook Sts., and Harford Rd. and Lanvale St. Looting is reported at Pressman St. and Fulton Ave. About 50 looters strike an abandoned liquor store three blocks south on Pressman. The intersection of Fulton Ave. and Baker St. is cordoned off. Nearly 300 angry youths throw stones and bricks at passing cars. At North Ave., looting is at its heaviest anywhere in the city.
• Late morning/early afternoon—Police cars are lined up at Gay and Aisquith expecting calls. In the 2100 block of W. Baltimore St., a bus driver is robbed. There are so many people under arrest that school buses are being used to transport them instead of police wagons and patrol cars. County fire companies begin to be placed on stand-by. In the 1700 block of Harford Road, and on Eden and Gay streets there are fires, the latter being a huge one. Crowds chant "We've got the key to the city" and "We shall overcome." At Lafayette and Fulton avenues, and in the 900 block of Fulton, police respond to sniper warnings. In the 800 block of Gay St., a man is killed behind the 1200 block of E. Madison St. after being chased following a looting. Another 10 stores are looted in the 900 block of Whitelock St. Two blocks there are cordoned off.
• 9 a.m.—Calls from the west side requesting shelter increase after this point.
• 10 a.m.—Rain begins; looting slows.
• 11 a.m.—At Whitelock St. and Callow Ave., a fire is reported at a Buick service station; an unruly crowd gathers near firemen. Fire breaks out in several buildings in the 2200 block of Fulton Ave.
• 11:30 a.m.—Soldiers use tear gas to break up a crowd of about 300 blacks who smashed the windows of a grocery at North Ave. and Chester St.
• Noon—First major fire of the day, a two-story brick furniture warehouse a half block west of the 1700 block of Guilford Ave. and Lanvale. At the city jail, inmates briefly refuse to return to cells after lunch. Police arrest 10 looters at a pawn shop at Bond and Monument streets; the store is later set on fire. A fire takes place in a store in the 900 block of W. North Ave.; it is burned along with three other buildings. Fires on Harford Ave., from Federal St. to North Ave., are reported.
• 12:15 p.m.—Cordon lifted.
• Afternoon—Looting and burning continues. National Guardsmen respond to hundreds of fires where they protect firefighters. Looting is reported in the 1800 block of Greenmount Ave. Police worry that the National Guard is not protecting all critical spots. At North and Linden Aves. there are reports of looting and burning. A fire is called in at Falls Road and 41st St. A grocery at Federal and Barclay streets is burned. Cars parked on East Baltimore streets are looted for parts and tires. A four-alarm fire breaks out at Guilford and Lanvale St. In the 900 block of W. North Ave., fires break out at a surplus store and three other buildings at Linden and North Ave. Looters are reported at the market a half block away. Precautionary moves are taken by officials in the early afternoon to protect the downtown shopping area. Looters strike the 1600 block of Pennsylvania Ave. In the 900 block of Whitelock St., a grocery store burns, and liquor and groceries are looted. There are unconfirmed reports of snipers, bringing state police and soldiers in to protect firemen. Later in the day, three dead are identified: killed at Harford and Lafayette, Federal and Chester, and North Ave. One person is shot in the 3500 block of Park Heights Ave. Teenage looters are reported as far north as the Pimlico area. Fires are being successfully battled, but the looting gets worse. At Federal and Milton, a fire breaks out in a liquor store. Gay St. to Broadway appears to be the center of problems. A fire is reported at W. North Ave, and surrounding stores are burglarized. All off-duty firemen are ordered back to duty. Saturday's violence is confined to a 20-by-10 block on the east side spreading to the west side.
• 1:30 p.m.—State's attorney Charles Moylan Jr. is quoted as saying, "The looting in the eastern half of Baltimore has reached terrible proportions." Large crowds gather on Baltimore St. in "the block area." They break up by 3:30 p.m. as the police K-9 corps moves in.
• 2 p.m.—Curfew hour is ordered advanced to 4 p.m. Gasoline sales and other inflammables are banned (except in cars). No alcohol is sold in Baltimore, Anne Arundel and Howard counties. (Bans go into effect at this time.) State, city and county offices close.
• 2:15 p.m.— Three courts close.
• 2.30 p.m.— Flare up at city jail between 250 prisoners. Four blocks of Harford Ave., from Federal St. to North Ave., that were hard hit by Saturday night's arson and looting erupt again. A luncheonette is set on fire, and two blocks north a deli and three houses are burned.
• 3 p.m.—A police command post at Gay and Aisquith reports that between 400 and 500 people are looting stores near Monument and Bond Streets and Sinclair Lane. The first use of tear gas by National Guard takes place at the American Brewery complex. The building is looted and burned on Gay St. five blocks below North Ave. Major looting is reported on Lamont St. and Harford Ave. By this point more than 30 have been arrested in the Western District alone. Most are charged with looting and burning.
• 3:30 p.m.—The eastern command post runs out of police cars. Blacks and whites work together to quell four fires beside the B&O tracks near Howard, Sisson, and 26th streets on the west side. A crowd on Baltimore St. disperses.
• 3:40 p.m.—Three stores are looted at Guilford and 21st St. and at Fayette and Gilmore. A thrown brick cuts a patrolman's head. On Gilmore Ave., from Baltimore to Franklin, a string of drug and liquor stores is looted. At Lexington and Gilmore, 50 people loot a drug store, and another 200 cheer them on. Fire is reported in the 500 block of Roberts St. Looting of a burned out pawn shop at Bond and Monument is reported. A fire in Club Savoy at Bond and Monument streets is called in. Problems are reported at Hoffman and Dallas streets, and Bond and Lanvale streets. An unruly mob gathers in the 2400 block of Barclay St., and a crowd of looters moves in on a warehouse at Guilford and Biddle St. Much of this occurs just 20 minutes before the curfew begins.
• 3:45 p.m.—Renewed looting at Ashland Ave. and Aisquith St., North Ave. and Wolfe St., and Preston and Ensor streets. Fire and unruly crowds are reported in the 1700 and 1800 blocks of Harford St. All cars ordered back to patrol, leaving prisoners jailed unofficially and the National Guard patrolling the post.
• 4 p.m.—Curfew begins. West side looting quickens; problems reported in the 1500-1700 blocks of Pennsylvania Ave. Police try to seal off the area, but teens circle back to loot liquor stores, with occasional rock and bottle throwing. At Ashland and Broadway, a drycleaners is burned. At Madison and Gay, windows are kicked in at Midway Gas Station. Twenty shotguns are ordered sent up from the Armory, and four cruisers are sent to disperse a crowd of hundreds of youths at Ashland and Central Ave. At Monument and Bond, a pawn shop is looted. Three other stores are looted in the 2000 block of Edmondson Ave. Issues between police and National Guardsmen continue. Six stores are looted on Edmondson Ave. and Payson St. About 300 people mill about in the 2400 block of Barclay St. The Eastern Police District runs short of men.
• 4:30 p.m.—By this time mobs are everywhere, from the 700 to the 2000 block of Pennsylvania Ave. At Bond and Madison streets a liquor store is burned and looted.
• Evening—A refugee center is set up at 758 Dolphin St. The city jail now holds 500. A fire is reported at Lanvale St. and Guilford Ave. Rocks are thrown at firefighters and newsmen at the scene, and hundreds watch the massive flames for 90 minutes through three alarms. There is a fire at 21st St. and Greenmount Ave., with one store and three homes burned, and a surplus store burned and looted. Two separate fires take place at Monument and Bond, and a tavern and package goods store is looted. From the 2200 to the 1700 block of Monument St., at least 15 stores are looted. Homes burn on N. Broadway. In the 1800 block of Harford Ave., four houses burn in two hours. Army helicopters patrol. Night court plans are made to accommodate the large numbers of arrests made on the west side. A one hour warning is given before curfew violators are arrested.
• 5 p.m.—Police begin to arrest curfew violators. The following is a sampling of calls made to the Civil Defense command post in northeast Baltimore after that 4 p.m. curfew:
5:05 p.m.—Fire in 600 block Barnes St.
5:06 p.m. —Fire at Myrtle Ave. and Mosher St., fire at N. Gilmore and Laurens St.
5:07 p.m.—Fire in 1900 block N. Rosedale St., fires in 1000 block E. Lombard St. at N. Calhoun and School, fire at Liberty Heights Ave., at Allendale in the 1500 block of N. Gillmore St., in the 2000 block of E. Biddle St., in the 800 block of N. Port St. , in the 1600 block of E. Eager St.
5:09 p.m.—Police protection requested at N. Poppleton and Saratoga St.
5:10 p.m.—Shooting at Poppleton and Lexington St.
5:11 p.m.—Fire in the 1600 block of Eager St.
5:17 p.m.—Fire in the 1000 block of E. Lombard St.
5:21 p.m.—Fire in the 1800 block of Baker St.
5:31 p.m.—Fire in the 1200 block of E. Preston St.
5:34 p.m.—Fire at E. Chase St. and Lakewood Ave.
5:38 p.m.—Fire at N. Milton Ave. and Preston St.
5:50 p.m.—Fire at N. Washington and Eager
6 p.m.—Fires at Gay and Eager, 200 block E. Biddle Street, 700 block of E. 20th St., 30th and Jenifer Sts., 200 block of S. Bethel St. at Bond and Gay, at Madison and Caroline, at Caroline and Dallas, at Ensor and Preston, at Warwick Ave. and Presbury St., at Biddle St. and N. Collington Ave., and in the first block of N. Poppleton St.
• Dusk—The number of troops and police is insufficient to quell the disturbances. Riots spread west and intensify.
• 6 p.m.—Troops from the 18th Corps Airborne Artillery are bused into Druid Hill Park from Andrews Air Force base in Prince George County. Firing first reported between police and rioters in the west side of the city. There are 6,000 Guardsmen on duty in the city. Several large trash cans are set afire in the Flag House Court Apartments a half block from the Lombard St. fire. Looting at a liquor store at Baker St. and Fulton Ave. is reported. Looting is seen in the 3500 block of Park Heights Ave. City jails are filled to overflowing within two hours after curfew. The capacity of the jail is 1,700, but curfew violators and looters fill it to 2,200. Its maximum capacity is 2.500.
• 6:14 p.m.—Pres. Lyndon Johnson orders 1,900 Army soldiers into Baltimore.
• 7:30 p.m.—By this time, the conflict has spread across the city, especially to the west, with 95 percent of the offenders estimated to be teenagers. In the 2000 block of Edmondson Ave., looting of clothing stores takes place, and 50 are arrested on Baltimore St. from Pine St. west.
• 8 p.m. to 9 p.m.—Looting peaks, with 128 incidents logged. Baltimore then becomes relatively quiet. West Baltimore hospitals treat fewer patients. Scattered looting is reported at Baltimore and Pine streets. From the 900 to the 1200 block of W. Baltimore St., stolen taxi cabs are used to transport stolen goods. In the first block of N. Caroline St., a pawn shop owner is ordered by police to hand over all his store's shotguns. Officers carry them to the Pikesville Armory. It appears that every store between Mt. Royal Ave. and Monroe St. on North Ave. has been hit. At North and Baddish, fires are reported. Guardsmen make a sweep through the east side. Gov. Agnew extends the curfew to Baltimore County. As the east side calms, the west explodes into a what is described as a "liquor crazed frenzy of looting and carousing."
• 8:30 p.m.—Gov. Agnew appears on television to explain what he has been doing and to announce a curfew.
• Evening—A service is set for Monday at Loyola. Eastern High Schol is repurposed as a refugee center. Looting takes place at Guilford Ave. and Lanvale St. and on Harford Ave. from Federal St. to North Ave. Two liquor stores in the 800 and 900 blocks of Caroline St. are burned. At Laurens and Stricker, a liquor store is destroyed by fire. Problems are reported on Pennsylvania Ave. running past the 2000 block of Edmonson Ave. A black church in Catonsville is burned. Drunken looters are seen on the east side from Broadway to Gay. Pillaging takes place on Edmondson Ave. Looting and arson continue for four hours after curfew. The city jail remains filled beyond capacity. Three municipal courts are severely overcrowded. A race riot by 400 black prisoners breaks out at the Maryland Training Center. In the 900 block of Whitelock, rioting is reported. The riot area comprises 1,000 square blocks, bounded roughly by 23rd St. on the north, Poplar Grove St. on the west, Baltimore St. on the south and Broadway on the east. In the 1800 block of Greenmount Ave., there is a looting of a liquor store. At Sixth and Church streets in Brooklyn Heights there is looting. At North and Linden, a crowd of 150 people witness three stores and several vacant buildings burn. Fire is reported at Falls Road and 41st St. A grocery store is burned at Federal and Barclay. At Guilford and 21st St., looting is reported. Along Gilmore from Baltimore St. to Franklin St., a string of discount drug and liquor stores is burglarized. Three stores are looted on Edmondson, and another six stores on Edmondson and Payson. A crowd of 300 gathers in the 2400 block of Barclay St. At 21st and Greenmount Ave. there is looting, as well as on North and Linden. Monument and Bond sees two fires. At Bond and Madison, a liquor store is looted and burned. The block between 1700 and 2200 Monument is hard hit, with at least 15 stores heavily damaged. On N. Broadway a home is burned, while in the 1800 block of Harford Ave. fires are set in trash cans. Laurens, Riggs and Stricker, all side streets of Pennsylvania, are consumed by looting. Pennsylvania Ave. takes on the appearance of a "ghost town" according to published reports. At Baker St. and Fulton there is looting. Also, reports of looting in Baltimore St. stores from Pine St. to the west are investigated. In the 2000 block of Edmondson Ave. and in the 900 and 1200 block of W. Baltimore, heavy looting is reported. Police say that it appears that nearly every store between Mt. Royal Ave. and Monroe St. on North Ave. was hit. Anne Arundel and Baltimore counties aid firemen in Baltimore city with 75 men.
• Night—a shooting is reported at Lennox and Callow, and also at Franklin and Warwick Ave. At Division and Wilson, two fires break out. In the 1300 block of Edmondson Ave., a pawn shop is looted and 73 rifles are stolen. In the 4800 block of Edmondson Ave., a service station is looted.
• 10 p.m.— A drug and liquor store at Windsor Mill Rd. and Chelsea St. is looted repeatedly in the two hours leading up to midnight. The Bolton Hill Shopping Center is ransacked at McMechen St. Special Municipal Courts convenes—more than 1,800 face charges of curfew violation or possession of stolen property.
• 10:15 p.m.—The Maryland National Guard is federalized and Gen. York is placed in command of all military units deployed in the riot area.
• 11 p.m.—Brigade of federal troops moves from Druid Lake to the 5th Regiment Armory. Four looters are arrested at Laurens and Stricker. Police confiscate a loaded pistol from a man at Monroe St. and Wilkens Ave.
• 11:45 p.m.—The Fire Department refuses ambulance service for non-emergency sick cases.
• Summary: Fires, looting large-scale disorderly crowds. Sunday's police reports include 400 episodes of looting, for a two-day total of 600. A 40-block swath of the east and west mid sections of the city have been impacted by rioting. More than 700 businesses have been robbed. Looting increases, while fires decrease from Saturday. The riot area comprises 1,000 square blocks, bounded roughly by 25th St. on the north, Poplar Grove St. on the west, Baltimore St. on the south, and Broadway on the east. For the first time since railroad strikes in the 1870s, Baltimore is patrolled by federal troops. By evening, the force equals more than 9,000 soldiers. There are 300 injured, 420 fires, 550 cases of looting, and 1,350 arrested. A hit-and-run pattern of looting means that there are few clashes between looters and troops. Amidst the damage in riot areas, streets are filled with broken glass.
Monday, April 8, 1968
• Midnight—By this point, six sniper incidents have been reported: Gilmore and Baker, the 1600 block of Calvert, Lombard and Lloyd, Monroe and Baltimore, Biddle and Argyle, and the 2900 block of The Alameda. Many more fires break out, at Frederick Road and Willard St., in the 1200 block of Central Ave., on Franklin St., and Allendale Road. Crowds gather to watch. On North and Patterson Park, the 100 block of E. Lanvale St., the 2100 block of Normandy Ave., the first block of N. Hilton St., the 600 block of Mt. Holly St., there is looting and burning of grocery and liquor stores. In the 800 block of W. Baltimore St., another furniture store is looted. A jewelry store on Eastern is looted. A tavern on Longwood St. at Westwood is looted.
• After midnight—2200 block North Calvert St., a report of trouble. In the 200 block of E. Preston, a food market is broken into. Rioting reported near the Murphy Homes at Myrtle Ave. and Hoffman. In the 2100 block of Calvert St., a fire breaks out. In the 1600 block of Warwick Road a house is burned. A store is looted and burned in the 2300 block of Hollins Ferry Road. In the 3800 block of Clifton Ave. looters are seen. There is a looting in the 1800 block of Linden Ave., and another on Division St. near Lanvale.
• 1 a.m.—Lootings reported since midnight: 14, as opposed to 128 between 8 and 9 p.m.
• 1:30 a.m.—"Curfew seems to be having an effect, city is generally under control."—Gen. York. The hot spot area of the night is in the Western district, where fires and looting are reported in an area bounded by Lake Drive and Gwynn Falls Pkwy on the north, Poplar Grove St. on the west, Baltimore St. on the south, and Green St. on the east.
• Dawn—Three house fires are reported, several lootings, and a two alarm fire in a liquor store at Federal St. and Milton Ave.
• 7:40 a.m.—A looter is shot in an alley behind the 800 block of N. Aisquith St. He is chased in the 800 block of Gay St. from a liquor store.
• 8:50 a.m.—A bomb is found in the 2700 block of N. Charles St. The area is evacuated.
• 9 a.m.—By this point, police report that looting has picked up in the Western District and is causing more devastation than was seen on the east side, which was already damaged by mobs. Once police leave an area, looters swoop in and start anew. Gangs are rumored to be using walkie talkies to figure out where police and troops are. Downtown business area is patrolled by National Guard and members of the 18th Airborne Corps.
• Morning— A "whirlwind tour" is taken by the mayor, who is accompanied by Sen. Joseph Tydings. All schools, most businesses, and almost all offices in the city are closed. Another 1,900 Army troops are called into Baltimore. Rioting spills out from "Negro Slums east and west of Downtown area along main streets in all directions," according to one newspaper headline. "For the first time, unruly groups of whites and blacks confronted each other in the streets and posed the threat of race rioting," a news account reports. Since Saturday at 5:30 p.m., 510 have been injured, more than 900 fires reported, more than 1,700 cases of looting called in, and more than 3,450 blacks arrested. A 4 p.m. to 7 a.m. curfew is ordered again. Gen. York, the mayor and Pomerleau spend more than two hours traveling through the city. Fremont St. along Edmondson Ave. reports looting.
• Early afternoon—Tear gas is used to disperse a crowd of 300 youths who smashed into a grocery at North Ave. and Chester St., near the worst area of destruction on Saturday night. In West Baltimore, soldiers with bayonets block the intersection of Fulton Ave. and Baker St. Crowds throw bricks and bottles at passing cars. The 400 blocks on the west side, from North Ave. south to Pratt St., from Gwynn Falls Pkwy. to Fulton Ave., are a "no man's land." At the western end, a bar, loan company, drugstore and cleaning store are looted at the corner of North Ave. and Pulaski St. Fires in the 2700 block of Pennsylvania consume five stores and the apartments above. In the first block of N. Liberty St. a "jitterbug band" breaks windows. Cars are pelted at Monroe and W. Baltimore streets, and at Smallwood and W. Baltimore St. Police are scarce in the area below North Ave. Many people loot at will along Monroe St. The 1300-1500 blocks of Penn Ave. are destroyed, and the 1200 block contains only a few intact stores. In the 900 block of Pennsylvania Ave., looters take guns. At Edmondson Village Shopping Center, three stores have shattered windows. Looting steps up and the west side's first major fires begin shortly before noon. After noon a band of 75 youths armed with clubs and rocks march down Pratt and Frederick to the Westside shopping center. Four policemen turn them back.
• Noon—Fires start up again on the east side, consuming a liquor store at Milton Ave. and Federal St., a warehouse at Federal and Holbrook, and stores at Harford Ave. and Lanvale.
• Midafternoon—Telephone exchanges are jammed. Edmondson Ave., from Fremont all the way west to the shopping center, has been scourged by looters; a few stores are burned, but almost all are looted and vandalized. In the 500 block of Roberts St., soldiers and policemen confront a mob with torches. After noon, looting calls come into headquarters at a rate of one per minute. A group of 40 Guardsmen set up a roadblock at Penn. Ave. and Franklin St. They block westbound traffic on U.S. 40. In the 1000 block of W. Baltimore St., a surplus store is hit by a multi-alarm fire. Four blocks west, there are still more fires. A major warehouse fire in the 500 block of Wilson St. is reported. Another 1,900 federal troops move into Baltimore in the afternoon, setting up field headquarters at the zoo.
• 2 p.m.—A large crowd of whites forms on the east side of the roadway near Perkins Homes, a southeast Baltimore housing project, shouting and taunting. As whites enter these predominantly black projects, Guardsmen arrive, forcing whites east of Broadway and blacks west to create a three-block buffer zone. Whites exchange insults with black youths, bottles and bricks are thrown, four cars driven by blacks are damaged by rocks.
• 2.30 p.m.—A grocery store and home at 1700 Madison Ave., looted Sunday night, are burned.
• 3 p.m.—In the 3400-4000 blocks of Edmondson Ave., hundreds of people are on the street. About 10 stores are looted. In the 3500 block of Edmondson Ave., a sandwich shop is broken into. There is no arson in this area near the city line.
• Before 3 p.m.—More than 50 Guardsmen stand a block away as a store at Fulton Ave. and Baker St. is looted.
• 3 p.m.—Until 3:45 p.m. at Pratt and Pulaski, 250 whites gather and shout "white power," blocking North Ave. On Frederick Ave., a smaller crowd of blacks gathers. Police in general keep the crowds apart. Around that time, a block away at McHenry and Payson, a fight breaks out between several whites and two blacks. An officer arrives and prevents serious violence by firing into the air. Two white youths are arrested. A black driver ducking from rocks thrown by whites loses control of his car and causes a three-car collision.
• 4 p.m.—In the 1400 block Druid Hill Ave., more looting and burning. But there is a decrease in violence immediately after curfew.
• Late afternoon—People hoard food because of curfews and fear. A A shooting at 1200 block St. James St. is reported, following more looting in the 800 block of N. Gay. The 1000 block of Lombard St. finds more looting. In the 1000 block of Druid Hill, a surplus store is burned. Hospitals on the west side ask for police protection. At York Road and Woodbourne Ave., a window is smashed by a gang of roving youths. There is looting in the 500 block of Washington Blvd. In the Lower Broadway area, a crowd gathers and heads towards stores in Forest Park, where rioters do damage. In the 2900 block of Garrison Blvd., a store emblazoned with a "Soul Brother" sign is looted. At Garrison and Windsor Mill Road, drug store windows are smashed. A store is looted in the 4600 block of Park Heights Ave. Taverns along Harford Rd. opposite Clifton Park are looted by north-going looters from the east side. In the 2600 block of Harford Road, a bar that refused to serve blacks is looted. In the 100 block of E. Lafayette Ave., another bar is looted. Looting spreads out of poor areas into middle-class shopping centers serving racially mixed neighborhoods. At Fulton Ave. and Baker St., a crowd hurls bricks and bottles at cars.
• Late afternoon—Tensions rise between whites and blacks in the South Broadway area and along W. Pratt St. After one man objects to being frisked, police begin to use mace to subdue uncooperative curfew violators. Some cars are covered in signs that say "Soul Brother" or "Black Brother," mostly driven by blacks with headlights on as a funeral solute to King. Many also have a black rag tied on the antenna in solidarity. Some fire trucks begin responding to blazes with armed soldiers aboard. Roadblocks are set up at downtown intersections, and motorists are forced to turn back.
• Evening—Sporadic fires burn throughout the night, many between 10 p.m. and midnight and concentrated in a single square mile bounded by North Ave., Preston St., Harford Road and Milton St. Teenagers roam the streets, throwing rocks and bricks at cars driven by whites along Monroe near Franklin and on E. Baltimore St. near Smallwood. Looting takes place on Monroe St. below Franklin, where witnesses describe the looters as "middle aged." The mood of the rioters has grown worse. Pratt and Frederick represent a line of demarcation. Gov. Agnew releases a statement on the control of city's looting. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture sends in trucks with nonperishable food at night. Taxis are taken off the streets. Another 800 persons are arrested and taken to the Civic Center, in addition to 3,300 prisoners warehoused at the city jail during the night. Sniper fire breaks out at night for the first time since disturbances began on Saturday. A shooting at Calvert and Lanvale is reported. Some looting is seen at Reisterstown Road and Edmondson Ave. Seven in Pikesville are arrested for violating the curfew.
• 8 p.m.—An outbreak of sniper activity continues until 1 a.m. Looters and fire bombers strike hard in West Baltimore. Rioting spills up Harford Road as far as Clifton Park and all the way out to Edmondson Village Shopping Center.
• 8:30 p.m.—Some city policemen are pinned down behind cars by two or three snipers firing from upper floors of the Flag House housing project in the 1000 block of E. Lombard St. They are then attacked by hurled glass bottles. Minutes later, fire erupts across the street. Firemen respond but pull back when sniper fire continues. The fire is centered at 1017 E. Lombard St. and burns Smelkinson's Dairy, Attman's Deli, a sandwich shop, and another store next to it. Guardsmen in the 1200 block of N. Charles find a man with a rifle.
• 9 p.m.—At Calvert and Lanvale streets, sniper fire pins police as they try to move a truckload of curfew violators. A white man is shot at the same time. Three men are arrested, but none were snipers, the injured man is taken to the hospital in serious condition. Guardsmen shoot back at people throwing stones and bottles and shooting in housing projects.
• 10 p.m.—No new fires are fought between 9:30 p.m. and this point. Looting is seen in the 2400 block of Hollins Ferry Road at a grocery store.
• 10:15 p.m.—Four reports of fire from the 1000 to the 1100 block of E. Lombard.
• 10:30 p.m.—Reports of sniper fire in the 4000 block Edmondson Ave. Sniper activity also at Baltimore and Monroe streets. A man is seized in the 600 block N. Carey St. after he pointed a gun at a soldier. A firebomb attack is rumored in the Guilford area.
• Night—Firebombs spread across North Ave. to Forest Park directly below Druid Hill Lake, up Harford Road to Clifton Park, and west along U.S. 40 to Edmondson Village and south to W. Baltimore St. At 705 Whitelock St. an auto garage is burned and a black-owned barber shop is damaged. In the 2300 block of Callow Ave., a drugstore is vandalized and looted. Looting in the 900 block of Whitelock St. is reported, and troops cordon off the area. In the 2200 block of Fulton Ave., a few more stores burn. A drug company in the 700 block of Whitelock St. is burned. A shooting reported in the 100 block of S. Exeter St. forces city firefighters to abandon attempts to put out a raging fire in Smelkinson's dairy store in the 1000 block of E. Lombard. Firemen refuse to fight the fire until the sniper is located. Guardsmen enter projects in attempt to find the sniper.
• 11 p.m.—Police struggle with a fire hydrant after firefighters leave for fear of snipers. Fire fighting begins again. Communications rooms cool down around this time.
• 11:10 p.m.—Fire truck returns, but the buildings are lost.
• Night—At least 110 communities across the country are hit by post-assassination violence, with approximately 29 percent of all arrests made in Baltimore. Police guard hub corners of Calvert and Fayette, Baltimore and South streets, and Calvert and Baltimore. Three food distribution centers open at Eden and Ashland, North Ave. and Barclay St., and North and Pennsylvania. Phone booth service is out in riot areas. Two white men are shot during an alleged sacking of a small grocery in the 100 block of E. Lanvale St. Provident and Franklin Square hospitals are protected by guards.
• Summary: By this date, 2100 firemen have fought 900 fires in three days. During this day alone, 332 fires are fought, and 466 arrests are made. Fewer than 40 persons by Monday are injured seriously enough to warrant admission to the hospital. The worst of the rioting appears to be taking place on the west side. As of this day, Hopkins Hospital reports 74 lacerations, 12 gunshot wounds, one tear gas inhalation, three fractures, four stabbings, one bout of hysteria and two burnings resulting in death. Elsewhere, the Pope plans a statement on racism. Scavengers and looters are separated into two charging categories by the Army. Gov. Agnew releases a proclamation allowing banks to remain closed this day if the managers find it necessary. The wave of looting appears to go from liquor stores, to electrical appliance stores, then food stores, followed by pawn shops for firearms, then jewelry stores and loan shops for money and valuables. Most of the devastation is in the Western District from Druid Hill Park along Pennsylvania Ave. and Fulton Ave., and in the Northeastern District along Greenmount Ave. The total complement of troops in the city is 10,848. The rioting appears to decline at normal meal times. A graph by police statisticians shows that most riot activity occurs in the city's high crime areas. Baltimore becomes the first city to plot this information as the riots are going on. Other notables: There were seven reports of snipers after the 4 p.m. curfew, with sniper fire beginning in earnest after announcements were made about the situation being under control. More gunfire is heard at Baker and Gilmore, at Exeter and Monroe and Fairmount Ave.
Tuesday, April 9, 1968
• Basic Information: The arrest total since 6 p.m. Saturday stands at 4,424. The number of injured reaches 600 shortly before dawn. Since midnight, there have been 76 lootings and 10 fires. The Civic Center holds an overflow 800 prisoners. To date, there have been six deaths, 1,075 lootings, and 1,032 fires.
• Midnight—Fresh gunfire at Flag House Housing Project draws police back. More sniper shots reported by police.
• 2 a.m.—Guardsmen protect firefighters.
• 3 a.m.—A 70-year-old man becomes the sixth victim of the riots, dying of burns in an apartment fire above a grocery store which was looted and burned in the 400 block Myrtle Avenue.
• 7 a.m.—The curfew is lifted, and motorists from outside the city are allowed in. Looting begins again, with 10 stores hit. Another two are burned.
• 8:30 a.m.—Tear gas used on rioters.
• 9 a.m.—Several fires are reported on the east side, but the west side is quiet.
• 9:30 a.m.—Sniper fire hits a car in the 1200 block of Aisquith Street. Second use of tear gas in an hour at Dukeland St. and Lafayette Ave.
• Morning—A homemade bomb is found in an apartment in the 2700 block of N. Charles St. At Gilmore and Baker streets, six drunk men disturb the peace at a food distribution center. Pennsylvania and Lafayette show more looting. Three dwellings at Pennsylvania Ave. and McMechen St. are destroyed. A drugstore at North and Greenmount and a liquor store at Wolfe and Chase streets also are ruined. Many businesses reopen along with remaining public schools. Some area taverns open, but are ordered to stay closed until further notice. Troops are assigned to ride on fire trucks to protect firefighters. King's funeral service is held in Atlanta. At Lexington and Gillmor, some apartments are burned. Downtown stores reopen. Sporadic looting takes place on the west side. City and insurance company officials begin touring the damage.
• 9:30 a.m.—A sniper on Aisquith St. sends a bullet into a car.
• Midmorning—The Army begins a citywide attempt to prevent further looting by boarding up partially plundered stores and exploding a bomb of CS gas inside. They start along the 2000 block of Edmondson Avenue. Gen. York takes a walking tour of the Western District. Disorderly crowds are reported in the 200 block of Edmondson Ave. and at Dukeland St. and Edmondson Ave.
• 10 a.m.—More sniper fire at Aisquith and Curtain streets. Dozens of police raids take place on this morning.
• 11 a.m.—Between 10 a.m. and this point, when King's funeral begins, 13 lootings and one fire are reported, with 49 arrests.
• Noon—Fire burns a laundromat and clothing store.
• 2 p.m.—At Harford and Lafayette a saloon is looted and one man arrested. Armed federal troops break up a peace meeting of 200 in Lafayette Square (even though they had approval from city police); angry crowds scatter and regroup at Mosher Street and Pennsylvania Avenue.
• Afternoon—The Baltimore Orioles home opener against the Oakland Athletics is postponed.
• 2:10 p.m.—A liquor store is burned at Chase and Wolfe.
• 3:10 p.m.—Sniper activity is reported at a fire at Fayette and Pulaski.
• 4 p.m.—At Monroe and Pratt, a crowd of white youths gather restlessly.
• 4:20 p.m.—A black family driving by the area mentioned above is stoned. The driver gets out of the car and is jumped by the mob. Another group jumps on the car and kicks in the hood and windows. A tall white man runs past and fires three shots into the car at the children, then runs south and drops a pistol. A few policemen arrive to reinforce a few Guardsmen who are pushing back the white crowd. The car leaves for the hospital. The crowd begins jeering and surges against policemen. Two men and one woman are arrested.
• 5 p.m.—The two men and woman are booked. Between 4 p.m. and this time, 30 store lootings and five fire bombings are called in to police.
• 6 p.m.—Between 5 and 6 p.m., trouble subsides. Looters take to the streets again shortly after that, raiding 18 stores and lightng nine 9 fires.
• 8 p.m.—In the first hour of the curfew, reports of trouble continue to reach police, though the number is dropping.
• 11 p.m.—Sharp drop in looting and fires between 9 and this point. Only three reports of looting and two fires, down from 194 lootings and 26 fires at the same time on Sunday, and 53 lootings and eight fires on Monday.
• Night—Troops ordered to tuck away bayonets, a sign of easing tension. But there is growing restiveness in white neighborhoods bordering inner city black areas, especially on the west side. Plans are announced for at least one more night of curfew. A list of affected merchants will be compiled, and taxpayers will be allowed to file after the April 15 deadline without penalty. Scarcities of milk and gasoline develop during the day. On W. Baltimore St., in the block between Mount St. and Fulton Ave., police hear shots from a rowhouse on Longwood near North Ave. Lethargic gangs gather at Broadway and Gay. As of this point, 50 policemen and 10 firefighters have been hurt in the riots, none critically. A number of black community leaders patrol trouble spots with plainclothes black
policemen during the curfew. A crowd regroups, chanting "That's enough, baby." More than 176 arrests are made after the curfew goes into effect at 7 p.m. Mace is used in a store in the 1300 block of of Pennsylvania Ave., one of the hardest hit areas of the city. Nonviolent civil rights organizations send sound trucks through the riot areas urging residents to remain in their homes. Looting takes place on Division St. In the 1700 block of Madison Avenue, arson is reported. In the 1400 block of Presstman St., there is a looting. A liquor store at Presstman and N. Calhoun streets is robbed. Within an hour of Mayor D'Allesandro's vote of confidence in the city, 48 are arrested, 19 lootings reported and three new fires set.
• Evening—Curfew is relaxed, with the hours set from 7 p.m. to 5 a.m. for Tuesday evening into Wednesday morning.
• Summary: Riot losses are estimated at $10 million, enough to classify Baltimore as a catastrophe area—although it is learned that federal disaster relief does not cover riots and civil disorder. There are 1,150 fires, 1,150 lootings and nearly 5,000 arrests since the riots' beginning. Lootings drop to less than 10 an hour during the night. More than 80 percent of those booked since Saturday are tried. Arrests drop from 62 between 4 and 5 p.m. to 21 in the next hour, lootings from 30 to nine and fires from five to one. The east side's center of violence is a rectangular section bounded by North Ave. on the north, Monument St. on the south, Guilford Ave. on the west and Washington St. on the east. The west side's center of violence is a triangular area bounded on the south by Mulberry St., on the east by Monroe St., and on the west by Pennsylvania and Fremont. Fires in other areas are sporadic. By this point, large sections of Federal, Gay, Monument, Aisquith, and Pennsylvania above Biddle St. have been cleaned out. Of the 600 treated in hospitals since Saturday, only 19 had injuries serious enough to require admission. Pupil absences of more than 50 percent are reported in elementary schools and 50 percent in secondary schools, with many teacher absences. The fire department received five bomb threats, four in city schools. All are false. Hundreds of fires are reported. Scattered reports of gunfire and snipers were handled by police. A lot of phones have no dial tone, caused by the massive numbers of people reporting on the riots or telling others they are safe or calling for a phone repairman during the disturbances. Cooperation between police and the Army is said to be improved. A check of sporting goods and gun stores in the county reveals that residents were purchasing firearms and ammunition at an above-average rate on the previous Friday and Saturday as the threat of rioting in Baltimore mounted.
Wednesday, April 10, 1968
• 1:20 a.m.—Sniper fire in the 1400 block of E. Oliver St. Sniper not found but an arrest is made.
• Morning—Nearly 2,000 workers are moved into East Baltimore to clean up and board up damaged buildings. A new curfew is announced.
• 11 a.m.—D'Alessandro announces that he believes that Baltimore's riot was organized and planned in advance.
• Noon—All banks and all seven of the city's markets (most in riot areas) are open. The only market that is damaged is Broadway, by a small fire.
• Afternoon—Sightseers take the place of street gangs. Workers clean up debris from lootings and fires on the west side.
• 4 p.m.— Gov. Agnew announces that conditions are improved, enough to possibly modify or remove entirely the ban on the sale of alcoholic beverages in the city and five counties
• 8 p.m.—Fires are limited to a few vacant houses and previously looted stores, most of them in or near the west side. Reports label it "One last little fling."
• 10:15 p.m.—Governor's spokesman announces that the statement on liquor sales still stands.
• Night—Police exchange gunfire with suspected snipers on a roof in the 600 block of W. Lanvale St. Tear gas is used to disperse crowds in the area. A fire is reported on Fayette St. east of Broadway.
• Summary: Arrests from midnight to 1 p.m. number 105, bringing the total to 5,316. Of that number, 175 curfew cases are tried. Juvenile court cases are postponed to Monday. There are only 10 new lootings on this day. The total number of lootings is 1,214. Two new fires bring the total to 1,208. Aid from the state insurance commission is made available at the Enoch Pratt Library. Most of damage is in the city's "poverty belt," officials report. Student attendance rises but remains below normal. Plans are announced for a walk of penance on Saturday by a white interfaith group. Courts process the last of more than 5,300 criminal cases. The 11,000 Army and National Guard troops remain in Baltimore to assure that relative peace is kept. This day also marks the end of marathon duty hours for troops, policemen, and firefighters. Lootings are minor, but the total edges toward 2,000. There is far less crime in daylight hours than usual. Downtown shopping is open for holiday gift buying until 9 p.m., and some shopkeepers along Pennsylvania Ave. and Gay St. are open. Merchants in the 2100-2200 blocks of Monument St. report business is almost back to normal. Gov. Agnew asks in telegrams to Pres. Johnson and the Maryland Congressional delegation that quick action be taken to bring damage caused by riots within the terms of federal disaster relief. Some 1,000 to 1,500 business owners are expected to meet at the Pikesville fire hall to discuss ways of getting help and of protecting against future disturbances.
Thursday, April 11, 1968
• Morning—50 trucks and 200 men move out to begin boarding up looted and burned out buildings.
• 9 a.m.—Prohibition on selling containers of flammable materials is lifted.
• Noon—Fire reported on Fayette east of Broadway. The ban on liquor sales is off, riot curfew lifted, and gasoline in containers rule is in effect. Prohibition of firearms and explosive sales remain in place.
• Afternoon—Fire in the 1600 block of Ingleside Ave. in a carryout shop. This episode is just over the county line.
• 2 p.m.—Gov. Agnew says he is disappointed with the black community's leadership. / Listen: MP3 File
• Summary: Repairs and assessments continue.
Friday, April 12, 1968
• Morning—Some federal troops begin to move out of Baltimore following a declaration from Gen. Robert H. York that order has been restored to the city.
•2:30 a.m.—Since 8 p.m. Friday, four outbreaks of violence have occurred: three fires and a shooting.
• Summary: Insurers estimate Baltimore losses at $8-10 million. Chicago reports losses of $15 million. During four days of looting, 288 liquor-related establishments were burned or looted, and 190 food stores vandalized. About 500 of more than 5,700 persons arrested remain to be tried on various charges, mostly for curfew violations. The loss of life totals six—three by fire, one in an auto accident, and two of gunshot wounds in suspected lootings. Only one person is killed by a policeman. Baltimore accounts for a quarter of all national arrests and about a seventh of all post-assassination riot deaths.
Saturday, April 13, 1968
• 9 a.m.—Deadline for federal troops to clear out of the 5th Regiment Armory.
• Summary: About 5,700 National Guardsmen remain to patrol the streets. There is an announcement that the riots will cause Baltimore to lose $345,000 in tax revenues.
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